Externalization and Securitization as Policy Responses to African Migration to the European Union

  • Victor H Mlambo University of Zululand
Keywords: Africa, Development, Management, Migrants, European union


This paper examines how African migration to the European Union (EU) has become
externalized and securitized and the implications this has for migration management
for both the EU and Africa. To accomplish this, the paper employed a qualitative research
approach which reviewed current literature on the topic under study. It found
that the externalization and securitization of African migration to the EU have failed
to prioritize and address the different socio-economic and political conditions that are
driving irregular migration. Additionally, externalization and securitization as policy
responses do not stop irregular African migration; rather, they prolong the misery of
migrants who are at the mercy of smugglers who prey on their desperation. The paper
concludes that migration management between the EU and Africa needs to be anchored
on policies that address the core ‘push’ factors driving irregular migration from
Africa, rather than policies which do not stop migration (even though they have slowed
it down) but rather indirectly empower smugglers and leave considerable room for the
abuse of migrants.

Author Biography

Victor H Mlambo, University of Zululand

University of Zululand