WritingThreeSixty http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360 <p>WritingThreeSixty is a bi-annual, interdisciplinary journal for research essays and creative works. First launched in 2014 as an initiative of the English department at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), WritingThreeSixty now forms part of the broader community within the Arts Faculty and Humanities at UWC.</p> University of the Western Cape en-US WritingThreeSixty <p>Copyright is retained by authors.</p> Vol 4 No 2 (2018): WritingThreeSixty http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/359 Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 4 2 10.14426/writing360.v2.359 Letter from the Editor http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/381 Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 Table of Contents http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/380 Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 Aliens as Immigrants: Reimagining Xenophobia in Neill Blomkamp’s District 9 http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/382 <p>Neill Blomkamp‟s 2009 AfroSciFi film, District 9, is set in a dystopian version of Johannesburg, South Africa. The film chronicles the landing of an alien race, and these aliens are derogatorily referred to as “Prawns” and are treated as second-class citizens within their new locale. The residence (and marginalisation) of the Prawns in a squatter camp known as „District 9‟ sparks public outrage and goes so far as to cause riots in the city centre. I aim to analyse District 9 in terms of our socio-political climate with regards to the rise and prevalence of xenophobia and xenophobia-related protests and attacks. Xenophobia is a recurring trauma that unfolds on South African soil, largely because residents believe that foreigners present a threat to their employment opportunities and their livelihood. Foreigners are victims to the deprecatory slur of being „alien‟, id est. being from somewhere else. In District 9, the Prawns serve as a metaphor for immigrants that have been given refuge in our country, only for them later to be disrespected and rejected by the general public for supposedly socioeconomic reasons. The film highlights current socio-political events under the guise of science fiction, thereby causing South Africans to potentially consider their own treatment of „aliens‟. Blomkamp‟s film serves to challenge African notions of the „alien‟ and question the xenophobic violence present in the “Rainbow Nation”. This narrative influences the positioning of Africa in a speculative future as it makes the vision of a dystopian future tangible.</p> Ashton Lauren Kirsten Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 1 1 The female protagonist’s intersection with the African world of actuality in Beyala’s novel Tu t’appelleras Tanga http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/383 <p>In order to overcome the silence that had been instilled by colonial-ism, several postcolonial female writers employ fiction to restore their local culture and reflect on their representation in historical writings. For female writers, literature often becomes a medium through which they can become active agents of their own destiny by establishing a voice for themselves. Writing becomes a means of reclaiming traditional discourses relating to women. The following study is primarily focused on Calixthe Beyala, a Cameroonian novelist, and specifically concentrates on the manner in which Beyala makes use of her female protagonist in Tu t‟appelleras Tanga to portray the realities facing African Francophone females. The study aims at illustrating that the female protagonist plays a critical role in mirror-ing both the conditions of females in African societies and the conditions pertaining to Womanism in a universal context. Through the role of the protagonist, the study reveals that there seems to be some relationship between fiction and society which is definitely enough for fictional characters to be used as prototypes for social roles and attitudes. In order to further investigate the manner in which African actualities are able to exist in fictional narratives, the study draws an extensive comparison between the fictional narrative Tu t‟appelleras Tanga and selected non-fictional Cameroonian laws ranging from 1980 to 2017. By addressing the intentions of fictional narratives, the study reveals a possible association between Beyala‟s fiction and the African world of actuality relative to the African females‟ predicament that is associated with patriarchal dominance, prostitution, the lack of agency as well as economic exploitation. To conclude, the paper maintains that Francophone African female novelists, and in particular, Beyala, make use of fictional narratives to not only highlight the pivotal issues regarding the status of African women but also creates a voice for future female generations to become empowered through the act of narration.</p> Jessica Glaeser Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 10 10 Seven ways of looking at Fan Fiction http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/384 <p>This essay examines the phenomenon of fan fiction from different angles, from the point of view of the readers and writers, to the attitude of the literary establishment and my own personal experi-ence as a member of the Harry Potter fandom. The purpose is to show the cultural significance and merits of this overlooked genre, which has grown exponentially in a post-internet, post-Potter world. This is done by examining its influence on a new generation of writers like Cassandra Clare, who got their start on platforms such as fanfiction.net and have since achieved great commercial success in publishing. It attempts to explain the popularity of the genre, by looking at how it functions as a „shadow world‟ to established works of fiction like Twilight, allowing fan communities to take collective ownership of texts and create multiple interpretations. Many creators like Robin Hobb and Diana Gabaldon are threatened by this change in ownership – and accusations of plagiarism are often leveraged to retain control. However, the essay argues that the majority of fan fiction is not written to profit from another‟s creation, but out of genuine love for it. Its popularity with young adults in particular has also made fan fiction an alternative tool of sexual education that allows marginalised individuals like members of the LGBTQI community to find representation, by writing themselves into popular narratives.</p> Ruby Parker Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 18 18 10.14426/writing360.v2.384 The Naturalistic Fallacy and LGBTQI Discourse: A Critical Comparison of the Views of Ned Katz and Ed-ward Stein http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/385 <p>In discourse on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, queer and intersex forms of sexuality there have been long-standing debates on whether such forms of sexuality may be regarded as “entirely natural” (or as others would argue “abnormal”) or whether sexual orientation is mainly the product of the “social construction of reality”. The term naturalistic fallacy was introduced by the philoso-pher G. E. Moore, following insights by David Hume. This has led to ongoing philosophical debates on whether or not the naturalistic fallacy may indeed be regarded as a logical “fallacy”. In this paper, situated in the sub-discipline of Gender Ethics, I will not seek to resolve such debates. Instead, I will investigate the ways in which scholars contributing to LGBTQI discourse, engage with the relationship between moral judgments on homosexuality and the question whether one‟s sexual orientation is something biologically and psychologically “natural”.</p> Jaun-Roche Bergman Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 28 28 The artwork of Kenneth M Alexander http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/386 Kenneth M Alexander Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 36 36 Poetry by Mario Faulmann http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/387 Mario Faulmann Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 47 47 Contributors http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/389 <p>List of contributors</p> Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 56 56 Kenneth M Alexander – Author and Artist http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/390 <p>I was born to Dennis and Kathleen Alexander in a single motor garage at 21 Limerick Road in Athlone. In those days, the midwife would do her rounds on a bicycle at the time when the stork was seen flying over the now-collapsed, missing going, gone forever Athlone Towers. Either that or she went to the foot of Table Mountain and placed a hollowed out pumpkin with a precision cut hole in one side. The monkey would come, stick his or her hand in the hole, grab some pips and in trying to pull its hand out in a fist, it gets stuck. The midwife then pounces on the helpless monkey, knocks it out with her case, and then stuffs “it” into that same black case and off she motors on her “dik” wheel bicycle to deliver the latest addition to an Athlone family. The monkey cries with relief when let out of the case. I have since moved on from that belief system. For some reason, the majority of the employers I worked for still believe that. In fact, far too many white people still do. To them we are monkeys and they pay us with peanuts.</p> Kenneth M Alexander Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 58 58 Mario Faulmann – Poet http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/391 <p>My life as a poet began on 11th July 1989 - eight-days before my twenty-fourth birthday, the day on which I buried my maternal grandmother. And five months after my eight-and-a-half-month stint on Kibbutz Gonen, Israel. I had to come full circle, and now twenty-three-years later I‟m back in Mitchell‟s Plain, having left there a few months after July 1989 and now live seven kilometres from where I started-off writing. Now here I am a published poet, my journey splashed with a lifetime of stories, escapades and noble quests.</p> Mario Faulmann Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 61 61 Editorial Team http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/392 Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 63 63 About the Journal http://epubs.ac.za/index.php/w360/article/view/393 Llewellin RG Jegels Copyright (c) 2018 University of the Western Cape https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 4 2 65 65